Discovered by Amateurs
Some astronomers spend their entire careers looking for new discoveries in space, but a 10-year-old Canadian girl found one on her first try. In January, 2011, Kathryn Gray, who often studied stars, was looking at recent pictures of outer space and comparing them to pictures taken years earlier. The pictures were just thousands of tiny spots of light, but Gray spotted a star that looked different in the recent pictures. Could it possibly be a supernova ( 超新星 )? Usually a supernova is brighter, and it becomes visible through a telescope due to the brightness. Later Gray’s discovery was confirmed, and she became the youngest person to discover a supernova.
Throughout history, important discoveries in astronomy have been made by amateurs. An early example is William Herschel, who discovered Uranus in 1781. Uranus had been observed before, but expert astronomers thought it didn’t belong to our solar system. When Herschel saw it with a telescope he had designed and built himself, he realized that it was orbiting the sun. This meant that Uranus was a planet. And so, the map of our night sky was changed forever.
Then in 1930, a major discovery was made by a 24-year-old man, a farmer’s son, with no college education or formal training in astronomy. Clyde Tombaugh had built a homemade telescope using instructions from an article in a boy’s magazine. He used to draw detailed pictures of the surfaces of Mars and Jupiter. He sent the pictures to Dr. V. M. Slipher at the Lowell Observatory, who was so impressed and offered him a job on his team. Within a year, Tombaugh discovered a ninth planet, Pluto. It was regarded as a planet for 76 years, but scientists decided in 2006 that Pluto didn’t meet all of the criteria for a true planet. It was then considered to be a dwarf planet.
John Dobson is another influential amateur astronomer because he enabled so many others to take up astronomy as a hobby. In 1956, after constant attempts, he built a powerful telescope out of low-cost materials, such as paper tubes used in construction. With affordable tools like Dobson’s telescope, more amateurs today have the technology that is needed to make discoveries of their own.
1 ． How did Kathryn Gray discover the supernova?
2 ． Why did Clyde Tombaugh get a job at the Lowell Observatory?
3 ． Please decide which part is false in the following statement, then underline it and explain why.
The four amateur astronomers were all interested in astronomy and did some research, so they finally made discoveries of their own.
4 ． Which of the amateur astronomers mentioned in the passage has impressed you most? Why? (about 40 words)
Most young people are accustomed to having online profiles on their mobile devices, such as smart phones, pads, and laptops. These devices contain a significant amount of information about them and their friends and family, including contact numbers, photos and locations. Since they are exposed to cyber more frequently, young people need to be aware of cyber threats and have a good understanding of cybersecurity, the measures taken to protect systems, networks, devices, and programs from digital attacks.
Cybersecurity experts continually identify the use of strong, unique passwords as one of their top recommendations. However, because young people have been using passwords online for most of their lives, they might not have stopped to think about how unsafe their passwords actually are. Indeed, strong passphrases, passcodes or other features such as touch identification to lock their devices can help protect their information if their devices are lost or stolen.
Public wireless networks are widely used nowadays, however, they are not safe. which means that anyone could possibly see what you are doing on your laptop or smart phone while you are connected to them. Young people should limit what they do on public WiFi, and avoid logging in to personal accounts like email and E-pay. If needing a safer connection, they should consider using a virtual private network (VPN) or a personal mobile hotspot.
Finally, information on how to act online is important for the safety of young people. They should be taught that they should add “friends” on social media only if they know who he or she is. They should also be made aware that posting pictures of other people without their permission might get themselves into trouble.
Starting to use these methods and raising the certain awareness of cybersecurity at an early age can dramatically improve the security of a young person’s online life.
1 ． What is cybersecurity?
2 ． What is the possible danger of connecting to public wireless networks?
3 ． Read the following statement, underline the false part of it and explain the reason. Experts continually recommend young people to use passwords frequently because they lack security awareness.
4 ． Please briefly present what you can do to improve your cybersecurity. (about 40 words)
Can a robot really freestyle?
Engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology, led by Gil Weinberg, have designed the first musical robot capable of not only playing music, but creating it. His name is Shimon. Weinberg, who is a musician, engineer, and professor of musical technology, found himself in a creative rut( 俗套 ) and decided to create a robot that could inspire him with new musical ideas. Shimon was trained on a vast data set of everything from progressive rock to jazz to rap. His works really surprise human listeners.
Up until recent advancements, applications of AI (artificial intelligence) have mostly consisted of well-defined tasks, but many are concerned that new technology like Shimon could result in lost jobs for millions of people, even those in creative industry.
While the concern of an offing future in which humans are entirely replaced by robots certainly isn’t unfounded, a much more likely future is one in which robots work alongside humans to improve their work. Experts say that AI will actually create jobs for humans, not destroy them. The Guardian recently reported that by 2037, AI will create more than 7 million new jobs in the healthcare, education, and science fields in the UK.
Shimon is showing us what can happen when robots don’t just work for us, but with us. Instead of putting any of our favorite musicians out of work, robots will certainly be challenging and inspiring them in new ways. The cooperation between humans and robots can produce new and attractive music, leading to novel musical outcomes. Thanks to the innovation of Weinberg and his team, rap battles, jam sessions, and symphony orchestras alike may begin to look and act considerably different.
1 ． What can Shimon do?
2 ． Why did Gil Weinberg create Shimon?
3 ． According to the passage, please decide which part of the following statement is false, then underline it and explain why.
Nowadays AI creates many jobs for humans, but it has a negative effect on the work of artists.
4 ． As a student, what is your opinion about AI applied in your daily life? (About 40 words)
EACH DECEMBER, the Oxford English Dictionary(OED)nominates( 提名 )a word describe the year which had just passed. In 2019, the OED needed two words: climate; emergency. For 2020, there was another kind of emergency-COVID-19- but this time he OED needed forty words to describe it. Yes, 2020 has been a very unusual year that hasn't been easy to describe.
Two of the obvious words the OED has suggested have been “pandemic” and “lockdown”. The former appeared, of course, because COVID-19 has spread around the world, and the latter because the life-threatening disease has brought most of human activity across the globe to a standstill. Businesses have been closed, travel stopped, and people have had to stay in their homes for weeks or even months on end.
2020 has undeniably been a bad year, but I would like to describe it in a more positive way, so I nominate “cooperation” and “hope” as my words of the year.
As the pandemic began to spread, there was a great deal of cooperation between countries and international health organizations. They shared information about the virus and how it could be contained. And countries shared medical supplies and equipment with other countries which needed them. China took a leading role in this effort by sending masks and protective clothing to Canada, the United States and Europe, as well as to countries in the Middle East and Africa. Without this cooperation, the pandemic, bad as it has been, could have been much worse.
And that brings me to my second word: hope. Even though COVID-19 is still around and will continue to affect our daily lives for at least a little longer, we are beginning to see the light at the end of the tunnel. Vaccines have been developed against the coronavirus and, with a little “hope”, we will get to see the world begin to return to normal.
2020 is over; 2021 awaits us. With “cooperation” and “hope”, it should make for a wonderful year.
1 ． Why has the OED suggested “lockdown”?
2 ． What does the author mean by “we are beginning to see the light at the end of the tunnel” in Paragraph 5?
3 ． Please decide which part of the following statement is false, then underline it and explain why.
2020 is viewed as a bad year because of the spread of the pandemic and it is viewed totally negative.
4 ． Which word would you nominate to describe 2020 except the words mentioned in this article? And why? (about 40 words)
Quiet the Complainer
For years, Jane Booth’s mother made lengthy airing of complaints. It got so bad that Jane felt it was ruining the quality of their time together, so she finally spoke up and helped her mother realize how often she complained. It turned out that Jane ’s intervention not only helped her mother—it also helped their relationship.
You may not be as direct as Jane was to her mother, but there are other ways to get a constant complainer to end. To be effective, it helps to correct misbeliefs about complaining in the first place. In fact, even the kindest, most considerate people complain. And complaining doesn’t always have a negative impact. Sometimes, complaining can change an unfavorable situation into a more desirable one. Other times, it can foster new relationships with people we don’t know well.
The problems start when complaining becomes the default mode( 默认模式 ). “When we have a need to be heard, we repeat ourselves,” says Dian Killian, a life coach, “the satisfaction for frequent complainers comes from attention, so they are never satisfied with any suggestion to address the problems that they highlight—resolution isn’t their aim.”
So, how do you quiet a constant complainer, for the sake of your health and his?
Change the subject. Some complainers will switch gears if you shift the conversation in a direction that interests them.
Summarize the complaint. If your complainer keeps repeating himself, he may stop if you demonstrate that you’re listening.
Challenge the person to act. When a constant complainer tells you about his latest problem, ask nicely what he’s done to improve it.
Be honest. When you have things to do, tell the complainer that you must cut the conversation short—especially if it’s someone who’s complained to you many times before.
When someone stresses you out with lots of negativity, it’s important to talk about the problem. Otherwise, if you bottle up your feelings and continue listening to repeated complaints, you may grow annoyed or start avoiding the person.
Remember: Quieting a constant complainer can be beneficial to both of you.
1 ． What did Jane Booth do to stop her mother complaining?
2 ． According to Paragraph 2, what are the misbeliefs about complaining?
3 ． Please decide which part is false in the following statement, then underline it and explain why.
● Complaining frequently is a way that people ask for suggestions for their problems.
4 ． Your friend has been constantly complaining about almost everything in life. What would you do to help him? ( about 40 words )
When it came time to vote for the speaker at graduation in the class meeting, Ms. Lenihan asked who would like to be our class speaker. Being a (an) 1 girl, I tried not to make eye contact. Seeing several classmates go up to the front to state why they should be the speakers, I felt a sense of 2 . But at last Ms. Lenihan 3 in front of us and said, “We will have another meeting this week, and I expect to see more participation. I am 4 that some of you are just sitting there when you should be up here!” When she said those words, I looked up to see she was glaring right at me. I felt so nervous, but knowing she had so much 5 in me, I should not let her down.
After spending the whole week practicing a speech, I stood up in front of my classmates. There were eight to ten other participants, and I didn’t 6 much for myself. When the votes came in the next day, Ms. Lenihan announced that the class chose me! I would have to stand up in front of our entire school to make a speech. My 7 level went through the roof, but Ms. Lenihan told me she was glad that I had stepped up to the 8 .
Over the next month I worked on my graduation speech. When I stood up in front of the whole school, I was still nervous, 9 when I looked at Ms. Lenihan, I remembered the whole reason I was up there was that she had faith in me. I believe I 1 0 that day, and will always remember the encouragement that Ms. Lenihan gave me.
1 ． A ． shy B ． honest C ． outgoing D ． lazy
2 ． A ． duty B ． shame C ． loss D ． relief
3 ． A ． stayed up B ． climbed up C ． marched up D ． pulled up
4 ． A ． disappointed B ． depressed C ． embarrassed D ． frightened
5 ． A ． faith B ． interest C ． pride D ． ambition
6 ． A ． win B ． expect C ． prove D ． share
7 ． A ． threat B ． anxiety C ． excitement D ． tolerance
8 ． A ． achievement B ． destination C ． failure D ． challenge
9 ． A ． till B ． then C ． but D ． so
1 0 ． A ． proceeded B ． promised C ． innovated D ． transformed
This was the fifth time I'd been to the National Annual Competition. Reporters had been saying that I looked unbeatable. Everyone expected me to 1 . But I knew something was 2 because I couldn't get this one picture out of my head: a picture of me, falling. “Go away,” I'd say. But the image wouldn't 3 .
It was time to skate. The music started, slowly, and I told myself, “Have fun, Michael! It's just a （ n ） 4 .”
Once the music picked up, I started skating faster. I'd practiced the routine so many times, and I didn't have to think about 5 came next. But when I came down from the jump, my foot slipped from under me. I put a hand on the ice to 6 myself, but it didn't do any good.
Things kept getting 7 . On a triple flip ( 三周跳 )I spun through the air, and just as I landed, my whole body went down again. There I was, flat on the ice, with the whole world 8 .
I didn't think I'd be able to pull myself together. But as I got up, I heard an amazing 9 .People were clapping in time to the music. They were trying to give me courage.
I wasn't surprised by my scores. However, the audience's clapping woke me up! I was so busy trying not to 1 0 that I forgot to feel what was in my heart-the love for skating.
1 ． A ． win B ． enjoy C ． share D ． relax
2 ． A ． challenging B ． missing C ． wrong D ． dangerous
3 ． A ． return B ． leave C ． appear D ． stay
4 ． A ． sport B ． activity C ． picture D ． accident
5 ． A ． when B ． why C ． who D ． what
6 ． A ． prepare B ． catch C ． comfort D ． measure
7 ． A ． clearer B ． easier C ． heavier D ． worse
8 ． A ． watching B ． expecting C ． ignoring D ． changing
9 ． A ． voice B ． story C ． sound D ． idea
1 0 ． A ． collapse B ． resist C ． fall D ． escape
Take an Option
Jerry was a natural motivator. He was always in a good mood and always had something 1 to say, which really made me curious. One day I went up to ask him how he did that. “Well, life is all about 2 . It’s your option how you live your life,” Jerry replied.
Soon I moved to another city. Several months later, I heard that Jerry was seriously injured in the chest while skiing. 3 , he was found quickly and rushed to the hospital. After 8 hours of surgery and weeks of intensive care, he was 4 from the hospital.
Later, when we met again, I asked Jerry what had 5 his mind during the accident. “As I lay in the snow, I knew I had two options: One was to live, the other was to die. I chose to live,” Jerry said. “The paramedics ( 急救人员 ) were great. They kept telling me I was going to be fine. But when they 6 me into the emergency room and I saw the expressions on the faces of the doctors, I got really 7 . In their eyes, I read, ‘He’s a dead man.’ I knew I needed to take action. I told them, ‘Operate on me as if I’m alive, not dead.’ You see, I just tried to 8 their confidence.” Finally Jerry lived thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of his amazing 9 to live.
Jerry has taught me a lot. I learn from him that every day we have the choice to live fully. Your 1 0 , after all, is everything.
1 ． A ． regular B ． familiar C ． positive D ． typical
2 ． A ． choices B ． trends C ． relations D ． secrets
3 ． A ． Normally B ． Obviously C ． Hopefully D ． Luckily
4 ． A ． preserved B ． released C ． distinguished D ． abandoned
5 ． A ． gone through B ． put up C ． turned in D ． called for
6 ． A ． forced B ． followed C ． wheeled D ． recommended
7 ． A ． bored B ． frightened C ． confused D ． embarrassed
8 ． A ． express B ． share C ． gain D ． inspire
9 ． A ． talent B ． achievement C ． desire D ． evidence
1 0 ． A ． attitude B ． standard C ． ability D ． control
Old Bernard Baruch.81 years old, is still ambitious. His only reference to the past was that, with great pride in eyes. he 1 to rank first in shooting. What makes this man still 2 ? The answer is his strong 3 to keep being productive.
Two of the hardest things to 4 in this world are to get wealth by honest efforts and, having gained it, to learn how to use it in a proper way. Recently I walked into the locker room( 休息室 )of a well-known golf club. A dozen middle-aged men were seated at tables drinking heavily and talking 5 . Day after day these same men hung out there and each of them had been a man of affairs and wealth, 6 in business and respected in society. However, it seemed that they are too content to be aggressive. They knew that their productivity had 7 gradually. When a fruit tree doesn’t bear its fruit, it is dying. In this way it resembles( 类似 )man.
What is the 8 of a long and happy existence in the world? I think I found it long ago in a passage. The words were few, but had a lasting 9 on me: "In the sweat of the face shall you eat the bread." The words have been and will always be a great 10 to me. At the end of the road I want to feel that I have fought a good fight and lived to the full.
1 ． A ． managed B ． seemed C ． expected D ． meant
2 ． A ． careful B ． innocent C ． energetic D ． normal
3 ． A ． reason B ． duty C ． action D ． desire
4 ． A ． receive B ． achieve C ． throw D ． refuse
5 ． A ． aimlessly B ． helplessly C ． fearlessly D ． hopelessly
6 ． A ． interested B ． strict C ． successful D ． absorbed
7 ． A ． disappointed B ． changed C ． improved D ． increased
8 ． A ． trend B ． idea C ． sense D ． secret
9 ． A ． mood B ． influence C ． impression D ． focus
10 ． A ． honor B ． comfort C ． approach D ． inspiration
What is it about?
Skillshare has a large database of online lessons taught by industry experts. Kids can search for a class by topic or by entering key words. Each class contains a series of video lessons that are taught as a lecture. Some classes have only a few lessons, while others have 10 or more. In fact, one guitar class has more than 100 lessons. Many classes include projects, and most end with a brief Final Thoughts lesson to sum up the class content. There’s a review section where users can leave advice. Kids can watch the lessons within that class directly from the app. They can also save classes to watch later, and any classes they begin are automatically saved to a watch list. Many classes are offered in the free version of the app, and a paid version gives users access to a much more extensive class list—more than 28,000 lessons.
Is it any good?
All the teachers in the app are passionate about their work, so it’s an excellent way to foster the same passion in your kids, as long as there is a genuine interest in the content being offered.
What kind of membership are you interested in?
$14.99 per month
$12.99 per month
$10.99 per month
$6.99 per month
You can cancel any time.
Email address for contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
1 ． The passage is intended for ______.
A ． kids B ． parents C ． teachers D ． industry experts
2 ． How much should you pay monthly for an annual membership?
A ． $14.99. B ． $12.99. C ． $10.99 . D ． $6.99.
3 ． What can we learn from the passage?
A ． Skillshare allows curious older kids to learn at their own pace.
C ． Subscribers can only cancel the order within one month of its purchase.
D ． Each class has more than 100 career-related lessons in the Skillshare app.
What Can We See in a Logo?
We see hundreds of logos on signs, vehicles, websites, and even on the clothes we wear. All of these logos are designed to attract our attention. 1 ． However, recently research supports the idea that remembering what a logo looks like is a very difficult task.
Researchers gave 85 students a simple assignment to draw the Apple logo purely from memory. Surprisingly, only one student in the study could accurately draw the logo from memory. 2 ． Researchers have developed a theory that they think might help to explain this blind spot in our memories.
Logos are typically designed to be simple and easy to recognize with a quick glance. Yet the frequent exposure to these logos can actually make our brains overlook them. This process is known as “attentional saturation ( 注意力饱和 ).” 3 ．
Even though the brain is accustomed to ignoring unnecessary details, it is also programmed for recognition. When we see images such as logos over and over again, we become familiar with them. This constant exposure leads to something scientists refer to as gist ( 梗概 ) memory. 4 ． This general sense of memory has its own benefits. In fact, familiarity with a popular logo can even make people feel more comfortable about purchasing or using certain products.
Logos are everywhere we look today. A fancy design or a thoughtful color combination may be a good start for a logo concept, but there are other factors to consider. 5 ． A clever design may be interesting, but most people will forget the details—especially if our brains have anything to say about it.
A ． This may be inspiring to logo designers.
B ． People will know the product behind the logo.
C ． So why is it so difficult for people to recall the details of images?
D ． They also help us remember a product or service connected to that image.
E.It means that our brain remembers the basic idea without all of the details.
F.Our brains actually signal us to ignore information we don’t think we will need to remember.
G.Logo designers need to know that people will only remember what they believe is worthwhile.
What animal pulls at your heartstrings—a panda or a toad ( 蟾蜍 )? Zoologist Lucy Cooke draws attention to some of the world’s least attractive animals. She hopes to show the world why some of the most unlovable animals are actually the most interesting and deserving of our attention and protection.
Cooke’s blogs and online videos bring her unusual storytelling style to a serious message: If we only care for the best loved animals, other important parts of the web of life could be ignored. There are so many television shows about lovely animals like koala bears and kittens, she observes. All the attention seems focused on “celebrity” animals. “Those unusual creatures attract me because they tell an amazing evolutionary ( 进化 ) story,” Cooke said. “I’m interested in all of nature, not just the shiny bits.”
Amphibians—animals like frogs that live both on land and in water—top Cooke’s list. Over a third of amphibians are going extinct; it’s the worst extinction crisis since the dinosaurs were wiped off the planet. “Amphibians occupy a crucial spot in the middle of the food chain. If you remove them, everything else will be lost as well,” she noted. “That motivated me to start my blog, The Amphibian Avenger. When amphibians go extinct, birds and snakes that eat them also disappear. And since they breathe through their skin, they are easily attacked by pollution and climate change. That makes them fantastic instruments for measuring the health of ecosystems.”
One of Cooke’s most popular online videos is about sloths—extremely slow-moving animals that live in trees. They’ve always had a reputation for being lazy and stupid. In fact, “slothfulness” is the key to the animal’s success, allowing the sloth’s liver ( 肝脏 ) to process poisonous substances found in the leaves it eats. Moving slowly also keeps it hidden from enemies. “My video showed the world how interesting they are,” Cooke said.
The bats, dung beetles and more get their moment in the sun thanks to Cooke. “I just want people to share my sense of amazement and love for these creatures.” Cooke stated. “Once you understand why they’re ugly or odd, you’ll appreciate them and want to save them as much as I do.”
1 ． Cooke started The Amphibian Avenger in order to ________.
A ． make the animal popular with people
B ． show her unique appreciation of beauty
C ． introduce the research on a new species
D ． explain the importance of this kind of animal
2 ． Cooke’s video about sloths is an example of ________
A ． why some animals deserve their reputation
B ． why she thinks it necessary to save animals
C ． how people focus on some specific animals
D ． how she is trying to change people’s minds
3 ． What is the best title of the passage?
A ． Animal Defender
B ． Intelligent Animals
C ． Cooke’s Storytelling Blogs
D ． The Secret of Extinct Creatures
The Land Under the Sea
Ten thousand years ago, as the last ice age ended, sea levels around the world were far lower than they are today. Much of the land under both the North Sea to the east of Britain and the English Channel which now separates France and Britain was part of a huge region of forests and grassy plains. Then the climate gradually became warmer and the water trapped in large masses of ice was released.
Now the development of advanced sonar ( 声纳 ) technology, known as bathymetry , is making it possible to study this flooded landscape in extraordinary detail. A special echo ( 回声 ) sounder is fixed to the bottom of a survey ship and it makes wide sweeps across the seabed. While previous technology has only been able to produce two-dimensional images, bathymetry can now use computers, satellite-positioning equipment and special software to create accurate and remarkably detailed maps. For the first time, an ancient riverbed jumps out of the three-dimensional image. The site of pre-historic settlements can now be pinpointed .
According to expert Linda Andrews, this technological development is of huge significance. “We now have the ability to map the seabed as accurately as we can map dry land,” she says.
Once bathymetric techniques have identified sites where people might have built their homes and villages, divers can be sent down to investigate further. Robot submarines ( 潜艇 ) can also be used, and researchers hope they will find stone tools and wood from houses as proof of human activity. The idea shared by many people in Britain of their country as a natural island kingdom will be challenged by the findings: Britain has been inhabited for about 500,000 years and much of this time it has been linked on and off to continental Europe. It remains to be seen how far this new awareness is taken on board, however.
In fact, the use of bathymetry will not be limited to the study of lost landscapes and ancient settlements. It will also be vital in finding ships that have been destroyed in accidents. In addition, commercial applications are a real possibility. Aggregates ( 骨材 ) for the construction industry are becoming increasingly expensive, and bathymetry can be used to identify suitable sites for digging for this material. Mapping the seabed will also identify places where rare plants and shellfish are living. Digging at such sites should be prevented, either to work for a profit or to make deeper waterways for massive container ships.
1 ． How does bathymetry work?
A ． It has an echo sounder placed on the seabed.
B ． It makes use of a number of different devices.
C ． It produces two-dimensional images of the sea floor.
D ． It bases its calculations on the location of construction sites.
2 ． What does the underlined word “pinpointed” in Paragraph 2 probably mean?
A ． Occupied. B ． Adjusted.
C ． Rebuilt. D ． Discovered.
3 ． The author believes a better understanding of the settlements on the seabed may ________.
A ． attract investment in the research under the sea
B ． inspire people to take an interest in modern technology
C ． adapt the attitudes of the British to their country’s history
D ． receive confirmation of rebuilding ancient man-made objects
4 ． We can learn that the use of bathymetry will help to ________.
A ． identify new species of plants and animals
B ． provide the precise location of sunken ships
C ． evaluate the cost of seeking certain resources
D ． promote the development of deeper waterways
Lessons in the Lost Art of Listening
When was the last time you listened to someone? And when was the last time someone really listened to you? I once asked people what it meant to be a good listener. The typical response was a blank stare.
Of course, technology plays a role. People find phone calls interrupting them, preferring text or wordless emoji. Besides, schools and colleges rarely offer classes or activities that teach careful listening. You can join clubs to perfect your public speaking, but who attempts to achieve excellence in listening? The loud unpleasant mixture of sounds of modern life also stops us from listening.
Generally, listening goes beyond simply hearing what people say. It also involves paying attention to how they say it and what they do while they are saying it, in what context, and how what they say is related to you. It’s not about merely holding your peace while someone else holds forth. Quite the opposite. A lot of listening has to do with how you respond—the degree to which you facilitate the clear expression of another person’s thoughts and, in the process, have a clear mind of your own.
Good listeners ask good questions. They engage in exploring the topic, not to divert attention. There are curious questions like “Wouldn’t you agree…?” or “Don’t you think…?” These questions have strong tendencies. They will greatly influence the other person to change his or her view. And you’d better stay away from some personal questions like “What do you do for a living?” or “What part of town do you live in?” Just try to find out what excites people. Ask about the last movie they saw or for the story behind a piece of jewelry they’re wearing. Also good are expansive questions, such as, “If you could spend a month, where would you go?” Research indicates that when people who don’t know each other well ask each other this type of question, they feel more connected than if they spend time together achieving a task.
Because our brain can think a lot faster than people can talk, be careful with the tendency to take mental side trips when you are listening. Smart people’s attention is easily taken away by their own runaway thoughts. They may also assume they already know what the other person is going to say.
The reward of good listening will certainly be more interesting conversations. Researchers have found that attentive listeners receive more information from speakers, even when they don’t ask any questions. We are, each of us, the sum of what we attend to in life. The gentle voice of a mother and the criticism of a boss both ultimately form and shape us. And to listen poorly, selectively or not at all limits your understanding of the world and prevents you from becoming the best you can be.
1 ． One of the factors that influence listening is that ________.
A ． our confidence in listening is decreasing
B ． our speech creates a lot of noise around us
C ． listening skills are seldom taught in school
D ． texting causes a better effect than phone calls
2 ． What does Paragraph 3 mainly talk about?
A ． Why the art of listening gets lost by itself.
B ． Why effective methods are used in listening.
C ． How people make themselves well understood.
D ． How people can reclaim the lost art of listening.
3 ． According to the author, what should people do when they are listening?
A ． Avoid being absent-minded.
B ． Come up with curious questions.
C ． Focus on the speaker’s personal information.
D ． Try to find common interests with the speaker.
4 ． What can be inferred from the passage?
A ． Listening and speaking deserve equal attention.
B ． Good listeners maximize the benefits for themselves.
C ． Bad listening ultimately contributes to people’s failure.
D ． Listeners’ clear mind facilitates speakers’ expression of thoughts.
Reversal—change your perspective and solve your problem
It’s often your definition of a problem that limits you in finding a suitable solution. Creative solutions require a change of perspective. 1 ．
The reversal technique is a creative thinking technique that is based on the thought that to change your perspective, you sometimes need to change the order of the words in your problem definition.
How you change the order of the words doesn’t matter much, as long as the key words are reversed. 2 ． Your challenge is “How do we make sure that fewer people take cars to their work?”. Swapping the key words, you could rephrase this challenge as “How do we make sure that fewer cars take people to their work?” In this case, the first statement will make you think of alternative means of transportation, like trains or bikes, while the second statement will probably make you think of solutions like carpooling—fewer cars for the same number of people.
Not every problem statement is suitable for a reversal. Sometimes using this technique requires you to first rephrase the question altogether. 3 ． For instance, the question “how might we sell more washing machines?” is not easily reversed—there is no key word to swap with “washing machines”. Yet, when you rephrase the question to “How might we sell more washing machines to young parents?” you can easily change it to “How might we sell more young parents to washing machines? 4 ． You could interpret this last sentence as “the washing machine pays the young parents to try it out”. Then, you could start communicating to potential buyers how much they will save each year when they choose your energy efficient washing machine.
As this example shows, some reversals will require a very flexible way of thinking. 5 ． However, thinking about the tiny amount of time it will “cost” you to try out a reversal, you have very little to lose and, potentially, lots to gain.
A ． The second problem statement is much more logical.
B ． Often it helps to add one more key word to the sentence.
C ． Rephrasing your challenge is to change the problem statement.
D ． A great way to do this is by “reversing” your problem statement.
E.For instance, imagine you are responsible for limiting the traffic jam in your area.
F.Admittedly, it is a very unusual challenge, but it might just stimulate a creative thought.
G.Not everyone will be able to move from an unreasonable statement to a useful solution.
Healthy eating, like many things, doesn't have to be an all-or-nothing enterprise. If you're looking to eat healthier, here are a few simple things you can do that don't involve an extreme diet.
Figure out the problem.
It's important to know what you're trying to fix. You would just first of all get to the root of the problem and see what the main obstacles are. 110 ． If you decide that you spend too much time mindlessly snacking, maybe it's because your meals aren't filling enough, or you need more nutritionally-balanced snacks around.
Make one or two changes to your daily routine and see how that goes. If it's doable and sustainable, try adding another change and see how that feels. 1 ． If the habit you are developing is customized( 定制 )to you ， to your lifestyle ， to how you feel and to your reality, it will be easy for you to repeat it and to make it a habit.
We have become increasingly dependent upon processed and convenient restaurant meals. Our taste buds( 味蕾 )can come to long for these high-fat ， high-salt food. Cooking more often can often improve your dietary quality and decrease your reliance upon these foods.
Add some fibre.
Many of us feel "full and energized" after a high-fibre meal or snack. Remember that fibre fills us up on few calories. 3 ． High-fibre diets have been linked to a range of health benefits, including protecting against disease. We should choose whole grains, and add chia seeds to things like cereal or yogurt to boost their fibre content.
Use smaller plates.
Using smaller plates at meal time is an easy thing to do that can bring us big benefits. 4 ． Make sure that half your plate is covered in fruits or veggies.
Make a commitment to focus on life-long behaviour change using strategies that are healthy, enjoyable and therefore sustainable.
A ． Cook more at home.
B ． Rely on restaurant meals.
C ． It's about building new habits.
D ． Then, you can look at the cause.
E.You can turn to your friends for help if necessary.
F.It slows digestion ， lowers cholesterol( 胆固醇 )and stabilizes blood sugars.
G.This will help to control portion( 食物的一份 )sizes so that you can be a more mindful eater.
The effects of working while attending school or college
Youths working while in school or college seems like a tradition in many countries and the trend is growing. A recent study has found that 80% of students in some countries have at least a part time job during their study years.
Why do students look for employment? 1 ． Education costs are high, and college tuitions have grown considerably during the last few years. Moreover, parents also contribute less toward covering the education costs of their children, which means students must earn their own money while studying.
Having a job during school or college years affects the students’ personal and academic lives. First of all, employed students have less free time and, as a result, they can’t be around their family or friends as often as they would want. They lack sleep and are more stressed, and they may even develop health problems. Furthermore, student employment also impacts academic performance. A new research shows that students working more than 20 hours a week have lower grades than those who work less or not at all. 2 ．
However, the benefits of student employment are also notable. It seems that employed students tend to be more engaged in academic activities than those who do not work, probably because they have developed a higher sense of responsibility.
3 ． Firstly, fresh graduates who already have work experience gained during their study years have better chances of landing a job. Employers usually prefer to hire a graduate with workplace experience, because they needn’t spend too much time and resources to train the new employee. Secondly, studies show that working learners are more likely to move into a managerial position soon after graduating. 4 ． As they try different jobs during their school years, they are more aware of their job preferences and target field, and thus far less confused than fresh graduates who have never worked.
To sum up, because of financial difficulties, many youths look for employment while attending school or college, and this can have positive or negative effects on their lives.
5 ． In this way, employed students can gain noteworthy advantages in terms of career path after they graduate.
A ． The main cause is financial pressure.
B ． Student employment has an effect on future careers as well.
C ． The government has increased funding for higher education.
D ． They state that the job limits the number of classes they can take.
E.Employed students know what type of work field would be best fit for them.
F.Finally, employed students develop a better appreciation of the career path to pursue.
G.So guidance should be given to help them keep a proper balance between study and work.
Blind Olympic Athletes Show the Universal Nature
Tune into any sports coverage on TV, and you will see many athletes proudly raise their arms and heads in victory, while a much larger number hang their shoulders and necks in defeat. Studies have revealed why—they are universal behaviours, performed by humans in response to success and failure.
The discovery came from Jessica Tracy from the University of British Columbia and David Matsumoto from San Francisco State University, who wanted to see how people showed feelings of pride and shame. 1 ． They tried to find a large group of people, and it was critically important that some of these subjects had never seen other people reacting to success or failure before.
The answer was Athens, during the 2004 Olympic Games. Its sister competition—the Paralympics—included many athletes who were born blind. 2 ． Working with a professional photographer, Tracy and Matsumoto compared the body language of 108 competitors, 41 of whom had lost their sight, and 12 of whom were blind from birth. The photographer repeatedly took pictures of these athletes after their competitions, and the researchers carefully recorded the positions of their heads, arms and bodies. 3 ． The winners tilted their heads up, smiled, lifted their arms and puffed out their chests, while shoulders bent forward and narrowed chests were the marks of losers.
4 ． Men and women who have never seen other people behave in these ways still make exactly the same movements. And while it’s possible that parents may have taught their blind children some of these actions, it’s very unlikely that they could have taught them all—particularly the expansion or narrowing of the chest.
These actions were also remarkably consistent between contestants from every part of the world. Tracy and Matsumoto argue that pride and shame deserve a place alongside other primary emotions like happiness, fear and surprise. 5 ．
A ． They are inborn behaviours and are accompanied by their own distinct sets of actions.
B ． In fact, the culture was found to have only a very small effect on their body language.
C ． Therefore, they could not have witnessed how other people reacted to winning and losing.
D ． The result suggested that the athletes were showing their pride based on careful observation.
E.The athletes’ behaviours give strong evidence that they have had the actions naturally since birth.
F.Analyzing the data, they found that the sighted and sightless athletes behaved in almost exactly the same ways.
G.In particular, they wanted to know whether these expressions were culturally determined and learned through observation.
Just because a scientist puts a GPS tracking collar on a wild polar bear does not mean the animal will willingly keep it on. They can remove it, if one becomes annoying. But scientists have now found a way of using signals from those dropped collars to track the ice itself.
The scientists identified 20 collars that transmitted movement data consistent with ice drift ( 漂流 ) rather than polar bear motion between 2005 and 2015. The resulting records of how melting ice drifts in Hudson Bay are unique; there are no easily accessible on-the-ground sensors, and satellite observations often cannot accurately capture the motion of small ice sheets.
The team compared the removed collars’ movements to widely used ice-drift modeling data from the U. S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Collar data indicated that the NSIDC model underestimates the speed at which ice moves around in Hudson Bay — as well as the overall extent of drift. Over the course of several months the model could diverge ( 偏离 ) from an ice sheet’s location by a few hundred kilometers, the scientists say.
This means the bears may be working harder, when moving against the direction of the ice, than scientists had assumed, “Since we’re underestimating the speed of drift, we’re likely underestimating the energetic effort of polar bears,” says Ron Togunov, who led the study.
The study reveals timely insight into how highly mobile ice moves. As melting increases in coming years, such ice will likely become more common farther north, in the central Arctic, says Andy Mahoney, a geophysicist at the University of Alaska, who was not involved in the study. Scientists had known NSIDC data could underestimate drift speeds, Mahoney says, but “any time we can find a data gap and plug it is a good thing.”
Plus, such data could improve predictions about how oil spills or other pollutants may spread in seas littered with drifting ice, says Walt Meier, a senior NSIDC research scientist. The findings may even influence future NSIDC models. “It'’s a really nice data set.” Meier says. “And certainly one we’ll take under consideration.”
1 ． What can a GPS tracking collar do?
A ． Measure the depth of ice sheet. B ． Capture the movement of ice.
C ． Describe the melting speed of ice. D ． Record the emotional state of bears.
2 ． What can we learn about the collar data?
A ． It shows the ice moves more slowly from its original location.
B ． It may reveal polar bears are not so energetic as before.
C ． It indicates the ice is more likely to move south in the central Arctic.
D ． It can help predict the location of some pollutants in seas.
3 ． Which would be the best title for this passage?
A ． Data Tells a Different Story B ． Wild Polar Bears’ Signaling
C ． Insights into a Puzzling Aspect D ． Ice Is Taken under Consideration
At university, when I told people I was studying for a history degree, the response was almost always the same, “You want to be a teacher?” No, a journalist. “Oh. But you’re not majoring in communications?”
In the days when a university education was a privilege, perhaps there wasn’t the assumption that a degree had to be a springboard directly into a career. Those days are long gone. Today, a degree is all but a necessity for the job market, one that more than halves your chances of being unemployed. Still, that alone is no guarantee of a job—and yet we’re paying more and more for one.
Given those costs, most of us want to maximize that investment — and that can lead to a plug-and-play type of approach to higher education. Want to be a journalist? Study journalism, we’re told. A lawyer? Pursue pre-law. Not totally sure? Go into STEM (Science, Technology, Engineer and Maths) — you can become an engineer or an IT expert. And no matter what you do, forget the humanities, such as history, philosophy and languages.
It’s true that the humanities come with a higher risk of unemployment, but the risk is slighter than you would imagine. For young people in the U.S. , the unemployment rate of those with humanities degrees is four percent, just a little more than that of engineering degree holders. Lower salaries may not be caused by the degree itself either. The gender pay gap persists in the humanities, whose graduates are more likely to be female. Is it any wonder then that language teachers tend to make less than engineers?
According to LinkedIn’s research on the most sought-after job skills by employers for 2019, the ability to communicate and get along with people, to understand what’s on other people’s minds, and to do full-strength critical analysis were all valued and appreciated. It goes without saying that you can be an excellent communicator and critical thinker without a humanities degree. And any good university education, not just one in English or psychology, should sharpen these abilities further. But few courses of study are quite as heavy on reading, writing, speaking and critical thinking as the humanities — whether that’s by debating other students in a seminar, writing a thesis paper or analyzing poetry.
The whole question of whether a student should choose STEM versus the humanities might be misguided to begin with. The headlines most of us see don’t help. Whatever a student pursues in university, it must be something that they are not only good at, but interested in. Even if it means pursuing a “useless” degree — like one in humanities.
1 ． Why are people paying more and more for a degree?
A ． Because people need a degree to further their career.
B ． Because university education is considered a privilege.
C ． Because a degree is viewed as a must for landing a job.
D ． Because their interest can be developed in university.
2 ． The author mentioned a plug-and-play type of approach to show ________.
A ． a tip for choosing a major
B ． the importance of higher education
C ． a problem that exists among STEM graduates
D ． the reason why people overlook the humanities
3 ． According to the author, what is the benefit of majoring in humanities?
A ． A comparatively high salary after graduation.
B ． Better chances of getting rid of gender prejudice.
C ． A better communicative skill than science students.
D ． More exposure to the training of language and thinking.
4 ． What is the author's attitude towards the pursuit of humanities?
A ． Doubtful. B ． Optimistic.
C ． Objective. D ． Concerned.
Vaccines( 疫苗 ) may soon make their first film appearance. Led by expert Maria A ． Croyle, researchers have developed a thin sheet that preserves vaccines for long periods without refrigeration. This means the carefully cooled small bottles now used to ship vaccines could potentially be replaced by lightweight films that can be mailed in an envelope and stored on a shelf.
Croyle’s laboratory began developing the technology in 2007. Inspired by amber’s ability to preserve the DNA of insects, the researchers set out to create their own version of the substance by mixing “a lot of sugar and a little bit of salt, much like hard candy,” Croyle explains. The vaccine-containing film is administered by mouth—sweet news for many who dislike needles.
The film is tailored to suit each specific vaccine candidate and provide a protective coating. “We’ve learned over time that the key to really stabilizing whatever the film holds is to have it intermixed with all the components,” Croyle says, adding that the process is quick and uses affordable, standard equipment. “We really wanted to come up with something that would be transferable to developing countries.”
Immunization( 免疫 ) programs depend heavily on keeping vaccines cold(2℃-8℃) as they are transported, sometimes over thousands of kilometers to far-away locations. Delivery can be difficult and costly, and transport disruptions can cause the vaccines to be ineffective.
But this new product can store live viruses, bacteria and antibodies for several months at 20℃. In a paper published in Science Advances , the scientists show that the live viruses in one vaccine were preserved in the film even after 36 months. They also find that a flu vaccine suspended in their film compares favourably with a traditional flu shot( 流感预防针 ). “The study demonstrates early proof of concept for an exciting platform for vaccine product development,” says Lisa Rohan, a pharmacologist, who was not involved in the study. She also notes that each vaccine type would need a custom formulation( 配方 ) for future stages of development.
Finding partners to mass-produce for clinical trials is the researchers’ most pressing problem, Croyle says. They are also exploring packaging methods to keep their films stable up to 40℃.
Size is a major advantage—a letter-sized sheet of the film can carry more than 500 doses( 剂 ) of vaccine, about 1⁄900 the weight of the same amount of traditional doses. By making it easier and cheaper to ship and preserve vaccines efficiently, Croyle says, the technology could vastly improve immunization rates the world over, particularly in middle- to low- income countries.
1 ． What can we learn about the film?
A ． It contains animal’s DNA ． B ． It will replace vaccines.
C ． It comes in different flavours. D ． It can hold bio-products.
2 ． According to Paragraph 3, we can learn about the film’s ________.
A ． key component B ． development schedule
C ． possible advantages D ． transportation requirements
3 ． The author mentions Lisa Rohan’s words to ________.
A ． advise personalizing vaccines
B ． suggest the product is promising
C ． prove the study is supported widely
D ． stress the functions of a new platform
4 ． What will be the next urgent task for Croyle’s team?
A ． Advertising the film worldwide. B ． Improving the film’s capacity.
C ． Reducing the shipping cost. D ． Seeking ideal manufacturers.
Albert Einstein’s 1915 masterpiece “The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity” is the first and still the best introduction to the subject, and I recommend it as such to students. But it probably wouldn’t be publishable in a scientific journal today.
Why not? After all, it would pass with flying colours the tests of correctness and significance. And while popular belief holds that the paper was incomprehensible to its first readers, in fact many papers in theoretical physics are much more difficult.
As the physicist Richard Feynman wrote, “There was a time when the newspapers said that only 12 men understood the theory of relativity. I do believe there might have been a time when only one man did, because he was the only guy who caught on, before he wrote his paper. But after people read the paper a lot understood the theory of relativity in some way or other, certainly more than 12.”
No, the problem is its style. It starts with a leisurely philosophical discussion of space and time and then continues with an exposition of known mathematics. Those two sections, which would be considered extraneous today, take up half the paper. Worse, there are zero citations of previous scientists’ work, nor are there any graphics. Those features might make a paper not even get past the first editors.
A similar process of professionalization has transformed other parts of the scientific landscape. Requests for research time at major observatories or national laboratories are more rigidly structured. And anything involving work with human subjects, or putting instruments in space, involves piles of paperwork.
We see it also in the Regeneron Science Talent Search, the Nobel Prize of high school science competitions. In the early decades of its 78-year history, the winning projects were usually the sort of clever but naive, amateurish efforts one might expect of talented beginners working on their own. Today, polished work coming out of internships( 实习 ) at established laboratories is the norm.
These professionalizing tendencies are a natural consequence of the explosive growth of modern science. Standardization and system make it easier to manage the rapid flow of papers, applications and people. But there are serious downsides. A lot of unproductive effort goes into jumping through bureaucratic hoops( 繁文缛节 ), and outsiders face entry barriers at every turn.
Of course, Einstein would have found his way to meeting modern standards and publishing his results. Its scientific core wouldn’t have changed, but the paper might not be the same taste to read.
1 ． According to Richard Feynman, Einstein’s 1915 paper ________.
A ． was a classic in theoretical physics
B ． turned out to be comprehensible
C ． needed further improvement
D ． attracted few professionals
2 ． What does the underlined word “extraneous” in Paragraph 4 mean?
A ． Unrealistic. B ． Irrelevant.
C ． Unattractive. D ． Imprecise.
3 ． According to the author, what is affected as modern science develops?
A ． The application of research findings.
B ． The principle of scientific research.
C ． The selection of young talents.
D ． The evaluation of laboratories.
4 ． Which would be the best title for this passage?
A ． What makes Einstein great?
B ． Will science be professionalized?
C ． Could Einstein get published today?
D ． How will modern science make advances?
The spa town of Cheltenham sits on the edge of the Cotswolds, in the county of Gloucester. Below is a look at four fabulous attractions that make Cheltenham such a terrific place to visit.
The festival is an annual, four-day feast of racing and, on the last day, features the famous Cheltenham Gold Cup Steeplechase. It's a dramatic race of around 3 miles and 2.5 furlongs. and the horses have to clear 22 fences. Anything can happen. In 2020,this last day of the festival drew in a crowd of 68,859.
If you visit Pitville Park, you'll find it divided into two main parts by the Evesham Road. The eastern side is home to the children's play area and is where people can view wildlife. Meanwhile, on the western side of the road, you'll find the larger area of the park and small areas of woodland. There's also a lower lake at which you can fish during fishing season. That's not the only activity, however. There's a skate park, tennis courts and a small children's play area.
Holst Birthplace Museum
Cheltenham was the birthplace of the 19"century English composer Gustav Holst, and visitors can visit the home in which he was born. You'll receive a taste of what Victorian life was like, as the home boasts a working Victorian kitchen, scullery, and nursery. The museum also allows you to discover the composer's life and times by allowing you into his music room. Here is where he composed The Planets .
This private castle, which is surrounded by views of the Cotswolds, holds the claim to fame of being the only castle in England to have a queen buried in the grounds. The castle has witnessed all sorts of drama throughout its history and is one of the most interesting Tudor castles you'll ever visit.
If you would like more information on Cheltenham Town, please visit the website: www.ctladiesyouth.co.uk.
1 ． Pitville Park is unique in its_______
A ． game areas. B ． horse racing. C ． beautiful views. D ． children's performances.
2 ． Which of the following will a music fan be interested in?
A ． Pitville Park. B ． Sudeley Castle. C ． Cheltenham Festival. D ． Holst Birthplace Museum.
3 ． Where is this article probably from?
A ． A diary. B ． A novel. C ． A website. D ． A magazine.
What comes to mind when you think of kung fu? If your mind is filled with images of Shaolin monks, Bruce Lee, or Kung Fu Panda, you wouldn't be wrong. But for Laurence J. Brahm, an American documentary filmmaker, the first thing that springs to mind is the concept of non-violence.
As Brahm explained, if you break down the character "wu" it consists of two characters: one is "ge" meaning dagger-axe; the other is"zhi" meaning to stop. So, the meaning of martial arts in Chinese is not the art of fighting, a concept that many people take for granted. On the contrary, he said, kung fu is the art of stopping fighting.
Brahm's relationship with kung fu dates back to the 1970s when he was a karate student in Hawaii. "My master always told me that if you want to fully understand karate, you have to go to Shaolin in China. That's where the origin is, "Brahm said. In 1981,he managed to visit the Shaolin Temple, situated at the foot of the Songshan Mountain in Central China, for the very first time. He left the mountain, a little disappointed at not finding the martial-arts spirit he expected. But his passion for kung fu and his desire to find out more were stronger than ever before.
Over the years he trained in many different styles, such as tai chi, Wing Chun, Jeet Kune Do to understand all of them. "Martial arts can help us connect our body, connect our neural system, connect our blood flow, and also help connect us into our environment to increase our awareness. Martial arts is moving meditation ( 冥想 )," Brahm said, his eyes bright and intense.
But to him, kung fu's charm and values are far more than that. He combined the knowledge from many masters and scholars with his own experience as a practitioner and tutor to extract 12 key principles and values of the martial arts: perseverance, roots, loyalty, respect, harmony, change, balance, centering, emptiness, flow, pragmatism, non-violence.
"Kung fu, in my eves, is a mirror of Chinese culture.” Brahm said “The traditional values of kung fu, actually, are in the minds of all Chinese people.”
1 ． What does Paragraph 2 really want to tell us?
A ． The character “ge” means “to stop”.
B ． Kung fu is the “art of non-violence”.
C ． The character “wu” consists of two characters.
D ． Martial arts in Chinese means the “art of fighting”.
2 ． How did Brahm manage to get the idea of kung fu’s values?
A ． He visited the Shaolin Temple in 1981.
B ． He trained in many different styles over the years.
C ． His master told him about it when he was in Hawaii.
D ． He joined his knowledge and his experience together.
3 ． According to the passage, which word can best describe Brahm?
A ． Determined. B ． Energetic. C ． Confident. D ． Friendly.
People eat more when they are glued to the television, and the more entertaining the program is, the more they eat, according to a new research.
It seems that distracted( 分心的 )brains do not notice what the mouth is doing, said Dr. Alan Hirsch, neurological director of the Smell and Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago.
Hirsch explored the impact of smell, taste and eating behaviors while watching TV by measuring potato chip consumption. Forty-five volunteers ate as many chips as they wanted every six minutes while they watched monologues by late-night talk show hosts David Letterman and Jay Leno. They were still given chips to eat when the television was off. Hirsch found people ate an average of 44 percent more chips while watching Letterman and 42 percent more while viewing Leno, than when they did not watch TV.
If you concentrate on how the food tastes, you'll eat less because you'll feel full faster, "Hirsch said in an interview at the Endocrine Society's annual meeting in Toronto. So if that's the case, let's look at the opposite. What if you're distracted? If you're distracted, in theory, then you'd eat more."
Through his research at the foundation, Hirsch has helped people overcome the loss of sense of smell and sense of taste. which typically results in weight gain because the brain does not know when it should stop eating.
The ventromedial nucleus( 腹内侧核 )in the hypothalamus( 下 丘脑 ) ， where the so-called satiety( 饱腹感 )center is located. tells the body whether it is hungry or full. It is inhibited or tricked, the result can be changes in eating patterns, he said.
People who cook spaghetti all day don't feel like eating spaghetti at the end of the day, "said Hirsch," By being exposed to a smell all day long it's tricking the hypothalamus."
Volunteers were asked to concentrate on the sensory characteristics of the food such as taste and smell. Researchers say these sensory clues, in addition to inner body changes. mark satiety.
But when distracted. a person does not pay attention to either the body's sensations of feeling full, or to the sensory characteristics of the food.
Many studies have linked being fat to watching television and that link is likely due to inactivity, Hirsch said. But perhaps entertaining shows are also contributing.
"If you want to lose weight, turn off the television or watch something boring," he said.
1 ． When Hirsch conducted the research, he______
A ． evaluated the degree of the volunteers' loss of taste.
B ． measured the amount of the chips the volunteers ate.
C ． analyzed the volunteers' preference on TV programs.
D ． counted the minutes the volunteers spent on TV programs.
2 ． According to the research, when will you feel full faster?.
A ． When we are distracted.
B ． When we focus on how the food tastes.
C ． When we are watching entertaining programs.
D ． When the brain doesn't know when it should stop eating.
3 ． Why does the author mention "People who cooks paghetti all day don't feel like eating it at the end of the day"?
A ． It tells us that eating spaghetti is inhabited.
B ． It indicates that spaghetti doesn't taste good at the end of the day.
C ． It tells us that people who cook spaghetti don' like eating spaghetti.
D ． It shows that smell is "telling" the hypothalamus that the body is full.
4 ． What is the main purpose of the article?
A ． To prove that being fat is linked to inactivity.
B ． To reveal the relationship between TV programs and eating behaviors.
C ． to explain why watching television makes people eat more and gain weight.
D ． To find how sensory characteristics of the food affects people's feelings of eating.
Our electronic devices today store an awful lot of personal information. We use the devices to read and send e-mails, check bank balances, and even pay our bills over the internet. We want to be assured that if our devices are stolen. our personal information stored inside them will remain safe from the thief who physically possesses the device.
To deal with this problem. Apple has come out with a new iPhone that uses biometric( 生物识别的 )information to lock itself up. The phone has a fingerprint scanner that will lock or unlock the phone. Your fingerprint becomes the key, and this makes it nearly impossible for others to use your phone without your immediate permission- or does it?
At first look, one would think that this type of security would be welcome in the high-tech community where privacy is valued. Instead, some people are even more worried about their privacy. According to revealed documents, the US National Security Agency is able to slip into smartphones, while the agency can also legally force companies to turn over customers' personal information. If this is true, the fingerprint scanner on your smartphone might become a tool for the authorities to collect your fingerprint data.
Another problem with using biometrics to secure devices is that people don't know how secure the systems actually are. Germany's Chaos Computer Club claimed to have slipped into a biometrically secured iPhone within days of the device's release to the public. If this is the case, people who are using this type of security are much more vulnerable than they are led to believe. Although most security systems are hacked by someone eventually, the speed at which biometric security was hacked was very upset to some.
Regardless of how a device is secured, the debate is still attributes to the trade-off between privacy and security. Governments sometimes need to look at large amounts of information in order to defeat terrorist secret plans, and necessarily, some of the data come from you and me. When we use iPhones and other devices, we lose the ability to safeguard information that we would rather keep private, and we are forced to put trust in others.
It will always be difficult to strike a balance between privacy and security with growing changing technology. Nevertheless, one thing is crystal clear: we all have to sacrifice some of our privacy in order to have security for the public.
1 ． Why do people want to be assured that their electronic devices won’t be stolen?
A ． Because people depend too much on it .
B ． Because electronic devices are necessary in the workplace .
C ． Because electronic devices are getting more and more expensive.
D ． Because there is too much personal information in their electronic devices.
2 ． The example of the US National Security Agency aims to tell us _____
A ． The biometric devices are fully safe.
B ． Companies keep users’ personal information safe.
C ． The biometric devices will be the popular way to ensure our privacy.
D ． The authorities may drive companies to turn in users’ fingerprint data.
3 ． The underline word in Paragraph 4 means_____
A ． stable. B ． insecure. C ． reliable. D ． difficult.
4 ． From the last paragraph we can learn that____
A ． the government will eventually know everything about us.
B ． It is impossible to know who can be trusted in this technological world.
C ． It is necessary to give up a certain amount of privacy for the sake of security.
D ． Very few people are willing to use fingerprint security on their new phones.
There are a variety of clubs which provide social and cultural activities for students wishing to meet others with similar interests from the same or from different national backgrounds.
Charles Peguy Centre
Royal Overseas League
CPC is a French youth centre, providing advice, support and information to young Europeans aged between 18-25. Facilities include an information and advice service regarding education, work placement and general welfare rights. Moreover, the centre holds a database of jobs and accommodation in London. Members may use a fax machine, a copier and computers to surf online or check e-mails for free.
Hours: Monday 14:00-17:00
Membership: £35 per year
Open 365 days per year, ROL is a club with facilities in London and Edinburgh with restaurants, bars and accommodation. There are branches around the world and 57 reciprocal clubs worldwide. Quarterly magazines, literary lectures, annual music and art competitions, and summer and winter programme of events are provided for members.
Membership fees: aged 17-20, £47 per year
aged 21-25, £70 per year
For further information, please contact the membership secretary.
YMCA London Central
Kensington Committee for Overseas Students
YMCA is a social club. Most members are young English professionals, but overseas visitors are welcome. Facilities include photography, art, drama, pottery, language courses at different levels, badminton, fitness testing, cycling, yoga and other activities.
Hours: weekdays 07:00-22:30
Membership fees: £125 per year
KCOS is a society for young people from all countries. Each month there are some 40 parties, discos, visits to theatres, concerts, walks and other gatherings where members will be able to meet lots of people. A new programme is sent each month directly to members. The club arranges a weekly club night in a Covent Garden bar. To find out more, telephone the club or write (freepost) to the office.
1 ． The passage is mainly for ______.
A ． young English professionals.
B ． local students from different backgrounds .
C ． European students in London.
D ． the youth wishing to meet different people.
2 ． According to the passage, which club can provide the places to live in?
A ． CPC ． B ． ROL. C ． YMCA . D ． KCOS.
3 ． If you want more information about language study, you can ______.
A ． make a phone call
B ． go to the office in person
C ． send a fax or an e-mail.
D ． turn to the membership secretary.
I know what courage looks like. I saw it on a flight I took six years ago, and only now can I speak of it without tears filling eyes at the memory.
Our flight left the Orlando Airport one Friday morning. But immediately upon take-off, it was clear that something was wrong. The aircraft was bumping( 颠簸 ) up and down. All the experienced travellers, including me, looked around with knowing smiles. If you fly much, you see these things and learn to act calmly about them. However, we did not remain calm for long.
Minutes after we were in the air, our plane began falling quickly. The pilot soon made a serious announcement. “We are having some difficulties,” he said. “Our indicators show that the control system has failed. We will be returning to the Orlando Airport. The flight attendants will prepare you for a bumpy landing. Also, if you look out of the windows, you will see that we are dumping fuel from the airplane. We want to have as little on board as possible in the event of a rough touchdown.” In other words, we were about to crash. Many travellers looked visibly frightened now. No one faces death without fear, I thought.
Then a couple of rows to my left, I heard a still calm voice, a woman’s voice, speaking in an absolutely normal conversational tone. I had to find the source of this voice. All around, people cried. Many screamed. Finally, I saw her. In this chaos, a mother was talking to her child. The woman, in her mid-30s, was staring full into the face of her daughter, who looked to be four years old. The child listened closely, sensing the importance of her mother’s words. The mother’s gaze held the child so fixed that she seemed untouched by the sounds of grief and fear around her.
Finally, I leaned over and by some miracle could hear this soft sure voice with the tone of comfort. Over and over again, the mother said, “I love you so much. Remember, no matter what happens, I love you always.” Fortunately, our landing gear held at last and our touchdown was not a tragedy.
However, the voice I heard that day never faded. That mom showed me what a real hero looks like.
1 ． What does the author imply by saying “some travellers’ knowing smiles” in Paragraph 2?
A ． They were used to this kind of experience.
B ． They were quite familiar with each other.
C ． They were well-educated passengers.
D ． They were pretending to be calm.
2 ． What happened shortly after take-off?
A ． The plane met bad weather and had to return immediately.
B ． The flight indicators showed the plane’s control system failed.
C ． One of the passengers was badly ill and the plane had to turn back.
D ． A flight attendant explained flight safety instructions to the passengers.
3 ． Hearing the pilot’s announcement, how did most travellers respond?
A ． They asked for help.
B ． They remained calm.
C ． They cried and screamed.
D ． They rejected the bumpy landing.
4 ． What is the best title for the passage?
A ． The shape of love.
B ． The voice of courage.
C ． The wisdom of a pilot.
D ． The danger of a journey.
What is a port city?
The port city provides a rich understanding of the movement of people and goods around the world. We understand a port as a centre of island-sea exchange and a major force for cultural mixing.
Ports and harbours
Harbor is a physical concept, a shelter for ships; Port is an economic concept, a centre of land-sea exchange which demands goods for export and import. Some ports were developed from poor harbours which were improved with breakwaters( 防水堤 ) and dredging( 清淤 ). Madras and Colombo are examples of harbours expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters.
Port cities become industrial, financial and service centres and political capitals because of their water connections and the urban concentration which draws to it railways, highways and air routes. Water transport means cheap access, the chief basis of all port cities. Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo and San Francisco began as ports-that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function. Although their port functions are no longer dominant now, they remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.
International city and trade
Port functions, more than anything else, can make a city more international. A port is open to the world. In it races, cultures, as well as goods from a variety of places, mix and enrich each other and the life of the city. But much domestic port trade has not been recorded. What evidence we have suggests that domestic trade was greater at all periods than foreign trade. Shanghai, for example, did most of its trade with other Chinese ports and inland cities, Calcutta traded mainly with other parts of India and so on.
Position of port city centre
Cities which began as ports keep the chief commercial and administrative centre of the city close to the waterfront. The centre of New York is in lower Manhattan between two river mouths, the city of London is on the Thames, Shanghai along the Bund. This is also true of Boston, Bombay, Madras, Bangkok and Singapore, where the commercial, financial, and administrative centres are still grouped around their harbours even though each city has expanded into a big one. Even a casual visitor cannot mistake them as anything but port cities.
1 ． Which port city is changed from a harbour by improving the facilities?
A ． Singapore. B ． Bangkok. C ． New York. D ． Madras.
2 ． Which would be the best heading for Paragraph 2?
A ． Good ports, huge profit centres.
B ． Once a port city, always a port city.
C ． Water transport, basis of port cities.
D ． Port functions, a feature of big cities.
3 ． What can we learn about port cities?
A ． They have water connections.
B ． They don’t trade with inland cities.
C ． They are easily mistaken for harbours.
D ． They moved their chief centres away from waterfront.
Nowadays, video gaming has made impressive gains in the field of standardized competition. One of the fashionable debates is whether competitive video games are sports or not. If cyberathletes are competing against formal teams in a formal environment, with real titles and monetary stakes on the line, it seems strange not to consider the activity a sport. However, unless something technologically odd gains complete control over our world in the next few decades, they never should be. Cyberathletes and eSports aren’t incomparable to traditional athletes and sports because they require less physical exertion or dedication. They are incomparable because they are different from traditional sports in a number of ways.
Traditional sports are steadfast, and consistent in their structures and mechanics. A professional American football player from any past decade could be transplanted into a current football field, and would only have to be told of a few minor rule changes. The player would know what to do, where to go, and how to accomplish the ultimate goal. He may need to learn a few new plays, but it’s fundamentally the same game. However, competitive video gaming has a variety of goals, and those goals are fluid and dynamic. A competitive video gamer from decades past might be aware of the final goal (winning the game, capturing the flag, eliminating the opposing team, etc.), but the execution ( 执行方式 ) would be completely foreign . Controls change, maps change, locations change, even the minute rules are adjusted on a regular basis. As a competitive video gamer, one needs to adapt to a much more aggressive ruleset than most sports or other games. Therefore the video game competitions are less likely to be properly regulated.
Most traditional sports are approachable by Everyman, even the esoteric( 深奥的 ) ones, at least in an educational setting, where budgets and funding are set for them. While home computers are widely accessible, a large percentage of the gaming population is unable to participate in competitive gaming due to the high-standard computing requirements. Even decade-old competitive games like Counter-Strike 1.6 require more equipment and gear than most traditional sports. A pick-up game of basketball, football, or soccer is far more accessible than a pick-up game of Counter-Strike .
Traditional sports are embedded in our culture for good reasons: they offer an entertaining diversion and a great form of physical activity for millions of worldwide fans. The principles and lessons gleaned from traditional sports emphasize teamwork, collaboration, and critical evaluations of any given game setting. While many of these lessons are applicable to competitive gaming, competitive video gamers are still distancing themselves from competing for “sport” status, when their pastime and trade is so fundamentally different and ever-changing at such a regular pace.
1 ． What is the author’s opinion towards competitive video games?
A ． They can be seen as sports due to their emphasis on teamwork.
B ． They can be seen as sports due to their standardized regulations.
C ． They can not be seen as sports due to their lack of physical and mental efforts.
D ． They can not be seen as sports due to the inconsistent rules and high requirements.
2 ． What does the underlined word “foreign” in Paragraph 2 probably mean?
A ． Difficult. B ． Common. C ． Typical. D ． Different.
3 ． Why does the author mention Counter-Strike in Paragraph 3?
A ． To explain the reason why eSports surpass traditional sports.
B ． To explore the possibility that competitive video games will be sports.
C ． To provide an example of the difference between eSports and traditional sports.
D ． To account for the fact that the competitive features of video games are impressive.
4 ． How does the author develop his idea?
A ． By quoting and citing.
B ． By listing and analyzing.
C ． By comparison and contrast.
D ． By explaining and evaluating.
Various Apps to Learn
Apps are typical digital learning tools, which can give you diverse and personalized content to meet your needs. Want to find an app that can help you learn? Here are some great ideas for you.
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Khan Academy allows you to learn almost anything for free. It covers subjects such as math, physics, biology, and even computer science. The real magic of this app is that you can learn at your own pace. You can review subjects that you are not good at, or start learning a subject you like. The app is in English. If you want to see its translation you can visit http://open. 163. com/khan.
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BrainPOP mixes learning and technology in a fun and simple way. It's free and teaches you something new every day. From the solar system to DNA, each topic starts with an interesting cartoon movie. After you've watched it, you can take a test to see how much you've learned.
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Udemy is a “learn on demand” website and app. It is for career-oriented individuals to start their course pricing at $10.99. This app allows you the flexibility to take your time on a course you purchase over the course of several months, without worrying about recurring ( 重复的 ) payments before you finish. This flexible learning app allows you to take things slow, fast, or anywhere in-between with complete control on your end.
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Duolingo is the premier leader in language education for learning apps. You can learn to speak 29 different languages, all at the touch of a button. You'll be invited to not only read new words, but to speak them. You'll learn grammar and conversational strategies. This app helps you learn to communicate with a new portion of its inhabitants!
1 ． According to the passage, what apps allow you to learn at your speed?
A ． Khan Academy and Udemy. B ． Udemy and Duolingo.
C ． Khan Academy and BrainPOP. D ． BrainPOP and Duolingo.
2 ． What can Duolingo offer its users?
A ． Subjects reviewing. B ． Speaking practice.
C ． Technical support. D ． Career training.
3 ． What is the purpose of the passage?
A ． To compare the difference of different learning methods.
B ． To introduce the development of learning technology.
C ． To help find the suitable learning apps.
D ． To provide various learning activities.
Recycling Electronic Waste
When Alex Lin was 11 years old, he read an alarming article in the newspaper which said that people were burying old computers in backyards, throwing TVs into streams, and dumping ( 丢弃 ) cell phones in the garbage. This was dangerous because e-waste contains harmful chemicals that can leak into the environment, getting into crops, animals, water supplies—and people.
Alex was really worried and decided to make it next project for WIN—the Westerly Innovations Network. Alex and six of his friends had formed this organization to help solve community problems two years before.
But what could they do about this project with e-waste? The team spent several weeks gathering information about the harmful chemicals in e-waste and their effects on humans. They learned how to dispose ( 处置 ) of e-waste properly and how it could be recycled. Then, they sent out a survey and found only one in eight knew what e-waste was, let alone how to properly dispose of it.
Alex and his friends went into action. They advertised in the local newspaper and distributed notices to students, asking residents to bring their unwanted electronics to the school parking lot. The drive lasted two days, and they collected over 9, 500 kilograms of e-waste.
The next step was to set up a long-term e-waste drop-off center for the town. After some research, they’d learned that reusing is the best way to deal with electronic devices and it is seven times more efficient than recycling. So, they began learning to refurbish ( 翻新 ) computers themselves and distributed them to students who didn’t have their own. In this way, they could help students in the area and protect the environment at the same time.
For a lasting solution to e-waste, the drop-off center wasn’t enough. Laws would have to be passed. In 2016, WIN helped push for an e-waste bill in their town, which required companies that manufactured or sold electronics to take back e-waste. The bill clearly forbids the dumping of e-waste.
Because of the work of WIN, more and more people, like Alex and his team, are getting the message about safe disposal of e-waste. As Alex says, “Today’s technology should not become tomorrow’s harmful garbage.”
1 ． What was Alex’s worry after he read the article?
A ． The littering of e-waste. B ． The recycling of plastic.
C ． The change of environment. D ． The overuse of old computers.
2 ． What did Alex do to start the project?
A ． Set up WIN. B ． Collect information.
C ． Ask friends for help. D ． Carry out a survey.
3 ． Which can best describe the way Alex and his team did their work?
A ． Traditional. B ． Competitive.
C ． Scientific. D ． Convenient.
4 ． What message does the story convey?
A ． There is no end to perfection.
B ． Success comes through failure.
C ． Every positive attitude has a reward.
D ． Young people can make a big difference.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
A video about a Chinese police officer’s broken English went viral on the Internet in China recently. In the video, a German student returned to Shanghai but got 1 ． (stop) by the security guards at the apartment gate. But the student doesn’t speak Chinese and the security doesn’t speak English. They couldn’t make 2 ． (they) understood. So the security ended up calling the police for help. Two police officers showed up on the spot, where they communicated with the student 3 ． very broken English and with body language. 4 ． settling the problem, the police officer told the student that she should learn some Chinese.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
Many people like travelling abroad. The extra money 1 ． (bring) in can be of great benefit to these countries. However, tourism has not been good news for the environment. First, transporting millions of tourists to their holiday destinations 2 ． (pollute) the air and the seas. Secondly, some beautiful landscapes are destroyed forever due to the newly-built hotels. And finally, fresh water supplies are running low 3 ． tourists consume much water. To conclude, I think tourism has a lot of negative consequences on nature. If we want our planet to be a 4 ． (health) place, we need to travel less.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
If you have been fishing, you know how hard it is to catch a really big fish. One reason is that it is difficult to find the exact position of the fish. The other reason is that big fish won’t just jump in the boat once they 1 ． (locate). Years ago, a man named Alf Dean 2 ． (overcome) both difficulties. Dean went fishing off the coast of South Australia. He pulled in a great white shark that weighed 2,664 pounds and measured over sixteen feet in length. That is 3 ． (big) fish ever caught by a single person.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
Learner’s dictionaries, all in English, are specially designed to help students. 1 ． confuses students is how they can be easy to use. Well, the definitions are simpler than the words they describe—they use high-frequency words. Students can also get grammatical and usage guidance, opposites, other expressions 2 ． (use) the word and lots of examples. So you can see that the dictionary helps to increase your word power, and improve not only your reading and listening, but also your writing and speaking. There may also be a wide range of 3 ． (picture) to help you understand.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空，在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
Last July China's manned submersible ( 载人潜艇 )Fendouzhe 1 ． (dive) 10,909 meters deep in the Mariana Trench. This is the 2 ． (deep) diving record for a Chinese manned submersible. The pressure underwater is very strong, 3 ． is like an elephant standing on the tip of your finger. Fendouzhe can carry up to three people. The egg shape makes it easier for the scientists 4 ． (move) around and study the sea.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空，在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
In recent years, Chinese literature has gained more popularity worldwide . An increasing number of Chinese literary works 1 ． (translate) into multiple languages, including English, French, Japanese and Russian, and read by people from countries and regions 2 ． (involve) in the Belt and Road Initiative (“ 一带一路 ” 倡议 ). Not only have the 3 ． (story) from China's past made their way through time, but the beauty of the language has drawn the world's attention.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空，在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
Once upon a time, in a small town lived a man who couldn't see. Yet, he carried a lighted lamp with him whenever he went at night. One night, he came 1 ． a group of travelers. One of them asked him, “Hey, man! You can't see anything! Why do you carry a lighted lamp then?” The blind man replied, “Yes, 2 ． (unfortunate), I am blind but the lighted lamp I am carrying is for people like you who can see. You may not see me coming and end up knocking into me. That is 3 ． I carry a lighted lamp.”
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
Known as a famous social media influencer, Pamela shares her interests on social media platforms with her followers and has 1 ． (quick) grown her international following. She once 2 ． (say) in a lecture, “Sometimes in life, you are in the right place at the right time and you have a chance. If you don’t take the chance at this particular moment, it 3 ． (go) forever.” Pamela is an inspiration for young women 4 ． want to achieve their goals by working hard.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
China has achieved a total victory in lifting the whole nation out of poverty( 贫困 ). The poverty relief policy was put forward in November 2013. 1 ． (finish) this task, about 800,000 officials have been sent to work at local levels. In the past 8 years, China 2 ． (lift) 98.99 million poor rural 3 ． (resident) - a population larger than all but a few countries - out of poverty under the current poverty line.
阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
Once it snowed, I netted a bird. 1 ． (hold) it in my hands, I felt very excited. My father saw it and said he could turn this black bird into a colorful one. I didn’t believe 2 ． he said but decided to give it a go. I opened my hands and saw that the bird was edged with the color of the sunshine when it 3 ． (fly) in the sky freely. My father said no matter how beautiful a bird was, it would turn black when it was grasped in our hands and lost freedom.
Nowadays, there exists a common phenomenon. A man walks 1 ． the sidewalk, a smartphone in hand and completely absorbed in the digital world. Just as 2 ． computers achieved before, smartphones are now changing our life. I am truly grateful for the convenience brought by it. But meanwhile I feel deeply anxious. To stay informed, I constantly update my WeChat.
That's why I often find 3 ． (me)absent-minded.
Why was the ox chosen to be one of the 12 Chinese zodiac signs( 生肖 )? Centuries ago, most people 1 ． (earn)their living through farming. Today, the phrase "the spirit of ox" still refers to overcoming anything 2 ． may present itself as an obstacle( 障碍 ). The spirit 3 ． (praise) highly and many people follow it as their work principle. When someone achieves a great accomplishment( 成就 )through hard work ， people often use "niu", meaning "awesome" 4 ． (describe) him or her.
Today, there is a trend that the youngsters haven't enough sleep during the night. Lack of sleep among children and teenagers in China 1 ． (get) worse in the past ten years, with more than 80 percent getting insufficient sleep on school days, a report 2 ． (publish)on Monday said. Chinese youngsters slept an average of 7.8 hours a night on school days last year, 20 minutes 3 ． (little) than in 2009 ， according to the report from the Chinese Academy of Sciences 'Institute of Psychology.
假设你是红星中学高三学生李华。你们学校下个月将要举办主题为 “ 寻找春天，拥抱自然 ” 的踏青骑行活动，请给你校的交换生 Jim 写一封邮件，邀请他参加此次活动，内容包括：
注意： 1. 词数 100 左右；
假如你是红星中学高三学生李华。你的英国笔友 Chris 和你都喜欢观察和记录生活。他在邮件中询问你记录生活的方式，请你回复邮件，内容包括：
1. 你记录生活的方式（日记、 vlog 等）；
注意： 1. 词数不少于 100 字；
假如你是红星中学高三 (1) 班学生李华。你的英国笔友 Jim 对中国的数字化生活很感兴趣，来信询问相关情况。请你给他回邮件，内容包括：
注意： 1. 词数不少于 80 ；
假如你是红星中学高三学生李华，你的英国朋友 Jim 在做关于 “ 中学生运动情况 ” 的调查，想了解你的运动情况。请你给他回复邮件，内容包括：
注意 :1. 词数 100 左右；
假设你是红星中学高三学生李华。你校英语俱乐部的上一任外教 Jim 为你们推荐了一位新外教。作为俱乐部负责人，请你给 Jim 写一封电子邮件，内容包括：
注意： 1 ．词数 100 左右；